• What does the Judicial Branch of government consist of?


  • In the United States government, the Judicial Branch consists only of the constitutional courts Congress established under its authority in Article III. These courts have general jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases that arise under federal law, US treaties and the US Constitution.The following are the only courts in the federal Judicial Branch:Article III Courts (all)US District CourtsUS Court of International TradeUS Court of Appeals Circuit CourtsSupreme Court of the United StatesThe Judicial Branch includes not only the courts, but all the justices, judges, federally employed prosecutors, public defenders and other attorneys, support staff, clerks of court, and many other people.Congress also has the authority to create courts or tribunals according to its enumerated powers in Article I of the Constitution. These serve an important function in the federal court system, but are not considered part of the Judicial Branch.Article I Courts and Tribunals (examples)US Bankruptcy CourtsUS Tax CourtsUS Court of Federal ClaimsMilitary courtsAdministrative Law Courts (associated with government agencies)For more information, see Related Questions, below.

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